Answers to this question depend largely on one’s point of view, but let me help. First the wrong answers always come from people jumping on the bandwagon – politicians, I’m looking at you! Senior and other public servants who have just been at a meeting of specialists in an area – you are very susceptible to leaping on passing bandwagons as well. Ambitious teachers/potential leaders looking for a cause to show your genius and suitability – is your reasoning also directed at the student population? Sure?
The best answer is that individuals need as much education in these areas as they will need in future. Problem? Who knows what any person will need? My early days of teaching often entailed visits to Dave through the typing classes – whole classes bashing the class sets of typewriters in unison – clackety clack – it was almost a hit by the Coasters. This may surprise you, but times have changed and at increasing pace, still do. My earliest in school computer viewing was of a box which in dodgy memory was a cubic metre in size did I think “these things will never catch on”? Perhaps.
Let us look at the student population which is not homogeneous. Surprised? There will be some who become experts in one or more of the above fields. They will need huge amounts of relevant stuff throughout their schooling and for the rest of their lives, keeping up-to-date as polished professionals do. There will be others who are well versed in some of these fields and use them in their work and lives, even teach the basics of them to others.
Many members of the population will need some understanding of the mentioned fields in everyday lives and to do important things like do tax returns, balance credit cards, vote for sensible candidates. Perhaps this level of knowledge would have helped the world population understand and support Fauci and his ilk rather than the deniers – half a million Americans is a lot of victims of a hoax. It will not even be over by Easter 2021!
Are there any other people? Three other groups in my opinion exist. One needs to know enough to ask for help and to know who to ask, because they just do not have a grasp of the particular sci/tech area that affects them. Another cohort plus all of the above groups need to know enough to realize when they are being lied to and exposed to bullshit. The final group have little knowledge or understanding and limited chances to acquire them in a world still beset by poverty and ignorance.
The final group [or two] badly needs a large representation of all of the groups above them [in the posting, not in some scale of importance] to speak truth, to make decisions responsibly, and to operate on the best available evidence. Postscript – evidence is never what someone said on social media.
So who must study the science tech areas above? Everyone who can, to the level they can, without being forced to do so beyond their ability or interest. Agony or boredom are not great promoters of learning. What else do these people need to learn? Like all people they need to learn how to keep themselves healthy in mind and body, to express themselves verbally, in writing and possibly signing and drawing and or music. They need to learn how their society and the world work and something of the languages of the world and to learn the lessons of history. Finally they need to learn not to bully, bash or coerce and every human must know and understand the meaning of consent.